Jabalpur is a historical city of Madhya Pradesh state. It is located in eastern region of Madhya Pradesh. Jabalpur had its important place in history of Central India. Its name is believed to have been originated from Arabic name "Jabal" which means Rock. Granite boulders are very much prevalent in hills of Jabalpur city area. If we go by Kalchuri inscriptions, this township was named as "Jabali Pattala". Kalchuri dynasty had their rule in this region.
Mythologically it is said that Jabalpur forest area was the home of three Asuras who had control over this region. Lord Shiva defeated them and make this region free from their effect. During Mauryan empire, this area was also under this empire. It is evident from the Ashokan relics, dated 300BCE, found at "Rupnath" holy site. It is approx. 85kms from Jabalpur city and now a days, lies in Katni district where Shiva temple is also existing. It proves that Mauryan empire had control over this region. After their fell, it was ruled by "Saatvahana Dynasty" during 230BCE - 220CE. It was Vassal state of Gupta empire (320-550CE) before it went into the hand of Kalchuri dynasty who left many marks of their rule.
During Kalchuri dynasty rule, from 675 to 800CE, this region was ruled by Vamaraja Dev Ji, who was one of the prominent Haihaya Kalchuri ruler. During that time, they were covering large area of Central India. They made Tripuri as their capital. Today's Tripur Sundari Mandir is located in same Tripuri's site. The greatest king of this dynasty was Lakshmikarna. He ruled over this region in 1055CE when kingdom was at its peak. Another best known Kalchuri ruler was Yuvraj Dev-I who had rule from 915 to 945CE. Their are many marks of Kalchuri rule in Central India. If we visit the Rani Durgavati museum, located in Jabalpur city, we can see the coins, statues, inscriptions etc of Kalchuri rule. The Chousat Yogini temple, located at Bhedaghat region, was another example of Kalchuri rule. It was founded by Kalchuri minister Golok Simha Kayastha and still actively used by public. Kalchuris continue to rule over this region till 11th century.
Kalchuri rule was followed by Gonds of Central India. Gonds are the tribal people spread over the Vindhyan and Satpura ranges. They are the natives of Central India and believed to have been the first tribe that had their own kingdom. First Gond ruler was Yadav rai, who laid the foundation of Gond rule. It was a good example in history of Central India where tribal people had also get the chance to rule over the region. They started ruling from 12th century and continue to rule till 18th century when Maratha and British power rose in this region. During Gond rule, their region progressed very much. Most of the today's historical monuments in and around Jabalpur city are of Gond rule like Madan Mahal of Jabalpur, Ramnagar fort of Mandla, Singorgarh fort of Damoh etc. Some of the prominent Gond rulers were Sangram Shah, Madan Singh, Rani Durgavati, Veer Narayan etc. Gonds ruled over the region till year 1780. Gonds actual rule was till 16th century when Rani Durgavati was ruling the region. After her death, other Gond rulers were the puppets of Moughal rulers. They accepted the supremacy of Moughals and rules as per their terms and conditions.
|JABALPUR HISTORY CHART
|| Rule or Rulers
|| Mauryan Rule
|230BCE - 220CE
|| Saatvahana Dynasty
|| Gupta Empire
|| Kalchuri Rule
|Till 11th Century
|| Kalchuri Ruled here.
|| Gond rule started.
|1510 - 1543
|| Rule of greatest Gond King Sangram Shah.
|1550 - 1564
|| Reign of Rani Durgavati, golden period of Gondwana.
|| Battle of Narrai, Rani Durgavati died in Moughal's attack.
|| Maratha forces took control.
|1780 - 1818
|| Ruled by Maratha's (Bhonsle rulers) of Nagpur
|| Maratha's defeated and came under British control.
|| Jabalpur cantonment established.
|| Flag Satyagraha
|| Tripuri session of Indian National Congress.
|| India gained independence
|| Jabalpur became part of Madhya Pradesh state.
After Gond rule, Jabalpur region was ruled came under the influence of Maratha powers that had strong hold over Nagpur and its nearby regions. They controlled this region from 1780 to 1818. During this time Bhonsle's have the rule in Nagpur and they were extending their limits over Nerbuddha valley.
After Maratha rule, Jabalpur region came under the British rule in year 1818 when British forces defeated Maratha's in battle of Sitabuldi. This had established British rule in Central India. If we visit Nagpur city today, we can find the market place, near Bus Stand called Sitabirdi which is same Sitabuldi. During that time Jabalpur was pronounced as Jubbulpore by Britishers. In order to strengthen their position on Nerbuddha valley, they made Jubbulpore as cantonment in year 1826 in an area of 445 acres of land. Since than Jabalpur remained an important place for Britishers. Since then till India's Independence, Jabalpur remained under British control. This was the time when Jabalpur keep on progressing. During this period, in year of 1833, Bandits of Central India were very much active in this region.
Work of William Henery Sleeman
They were popularly called "Thuggs" and their profession was to kill general commuters or travellers who undertakes travelling from one town to another due to any reason. "Thuggs" were gangs of professional killers who kills visitors for sake of money and their peculiar way of killing visitors differentiates them from other robbers. Thuggs were active gangs who gathers from different villages to kill visitors without using any arm, not allowing blood to come out. Their arm was their turbans or handkerchiefs. It was their profession. When they were free from farming, they gathers and carry out such killings. They were very professional about their work. Gang operates in professional way where every person was given a particular task like some person will hold legs of victim, some will hold their hands, selected person will strangle the victim and boss will decide where and when to kill. After every killing they fully burry every victim so that during any investigation, bodies will never been traced. Their were gang leaders like Firangiya, Bairam etc. who have killed more than 500 people. Thousands of visitors killed by them in their active years. In order to suppress them, William Henery Sleeman was the first British Officer who took actual initiative and requested British Government to take some step. Thus Anti-thugg department was created and Jabalpur was made the head-quarter. W. H. Sleeman lead the department and it was his noble efforts that one after another hundreds of such Thuggs were finally captured and punished. W. H. Sleeman was one of the great Britisher whose work is still admired by Indians, even after so many decades and their was a place called "Sleemanabad" named in his honor.